State Fact Sheet


Tamil Nadu is in the southeastern part of modern India, there is evidence in Tamil Nadu of having had the longest continuous human habitation in the Indian peninsula. The Madras Presidency, comprising most of southern India, was created in the 18th century and was ruled directly by the British. After the independence of India, a separate State, Madras was established as per the linguistic reorganization of States in 1956 and it was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969 by the State Government. Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state of India is the tenth largest state in India. The Capital is Chennai and it is known as the Detroit of India. It is bound by Andhra Pradesh on the north, Karnataka on the northwest and Kerala on the west. The eastern coast has the Bay of Bengal whereas the southern coast has the Indian Ocean as boundaries. Tamil is the official language of Tamil Nadu state and one of the Official languages mentioned in the eighth schedule of the Indian constitution. As per the 2011 census it is the sixth largest state by population comprising of 38 districts. The Other languages spoken in this state are Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.
Facts about Tamil Nadu:
SL.No Title Details
1 Area 1,30,058 Sq.Km
2 Establishment 1st November 1956(renamed in 1969 as Tamil Nadu)
3 Population 7.21 Crores (2011 Census)
4 Principal Official Language Tamil
5 Capital Chennai
6 Members of Parliament LokSabha - 39, RajyaSabha – 18
7 Legislature Unicameral ( Legislative Assembly – 234)
8 Airports Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli, Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Salem and Thoothukkudi
9 Major Cities Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore,Salem,Tiruppur
10 Festivals Pongal, Jallikattu, Chithirai Festival, Adipperukku, Mahamagam Festival, Kanthuri Festival, Velankanni Festival, Navarathiri, Karthigai Deepam
11 Literacy 80.09%
12 Districts 38
13 Sex Ratio (as per 2011 Census) 996 per thousand males (as per 2011 Census)
14 Child Sex Ratio 943/1000 male children
15 Principal Rivers Cauvery, Adyar, Kosasthalaiyar , South Pennar, Periyar, Vaigai, Tamaraparani
16 Principal Minerals Limestone, Magnesite, Graphite, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Vermiculite, minor minerals such as Granites, Clay, Silica sand, Lignite, fuel minerals such as
Petroleum and Natural Gas and atomic minerals such as Monazite, Rutile, Ilmenite.
17 Tourist and Historical Places Chennai (beaches like Marina), Madurai (Meenakshi temple & historic city), Mamallapuram (ancient rock cut temple) , Poompuhar, Kacheepuram
(centre of rich tradition and learning from Shankaracharyas), Temples at Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiruvanamalai, Srirangam, Tirunelveli,
Thanjavur (Big temple), Velankanni Rameswaram, Kanyakumari, etc
18 State Density 555/km2
19 Religion in the State
Hinduism (87.58%)
Christianity (6.12%)
Islam (5.86%)
Jainism (0.12%)
Buddhism (0.03%)
Sikhism (0.02%)
Other (0.01%)
Not religious (0.26%)
Capital of Tamil Nadu - Chennai city
Chennai, formerly Madras city, capital of Tamil Nadu State, southern India, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, known as the “Gateway to South India,”. Chennai was selected as one of the Smart Cities on 28th January 2016. Chennai is a major administrative and cultural Centre. The first city in India to adopt and implement Non-Motorized transport (NMT) policy since September 2014 to encourage and promote pedestrianisation. Mobile based application “waste bin clearance monitoring system with GIS based interface to check the status of bins and GIS based vehicle monitoring system are in place since 2013. The Chennai Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Chennai which is the fourth longest metro system in India and Metro Transport Corporation has a fleet of more than 4000 buses. Since the late 1990s, software development and electronics manufacturing have made up the bulk of Chennai’s economy. Chennai is hailed as one of the safest places to live, especially for women. Tamil Nadu Police Citizen Portal has a link to launch a complaint, citizens can also track their complaints.
Art and Culture represent the pinnacle of achievements of a civilization. Tamil Nadu is richly endowed with Literature, Sculptures, Paintings and Murals that show case the numerous achievements of people over centuries. Tamil literature abounds with instances of the legendary Hospitality, behavior, conduct, honesty, generosity, spirit of accommodation and adaptability of Tamils. Sculptures of Tamil Nadu are poetry in stone. Music is closely intertwined with every aspect of Tamils’ lives. From ‘Thalattu’ at the time of birth, to ‘Gummi’ at play, ‘Etrapaatu’ while irrigating, and ‘Naatrupattu’ while planting. The other folk arts of TamilNadu are Mayil Attam, Kummi, Kai Silambu Attam, Bharatnatyam, Karakattam,Bhagavatha Nandanam, Oyilattam and Kavadi Attam.
Tamil Nadu has deep roots of history and antiquity. But historical references are available only from the Pallavas. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century AD. After that the three ancient Tamil dynasties namely Chera, Chola, and Pandya were of ancient origins. Together they ruled over this land with a unique culture and language, contributing to the growth of some of the oldest extant literature in the world.
Oldest democratic process
Kudavolai’ (Kuda Olai) system of voting process, precursor to today’s Constitutional Democracy dates back to Chola period (900 CE) of Tamil Nadu. The Chola administration was functioning on the principles of democracy and the Panchayat system flourished during their reign. Uttaramerur inscriptions talk about Kudavolai system which is a very notable and unique feature of the village administration of the Cholas dynasty at Tamil Nadu.
Tamil Nadu has an equatorial, tropical climate in the inlands and an equatorial, maritime climate in its coastal regions. By and large, the average temperature for most parts of the state ranges between 28°C to 40°C during summer and 18°C to 26°C during short-lived winter season.
Major industries of this state are cotton, heavy commercial vehicles, auto parts, railway coaches, cement, paper, safety matches. Knowledge based industries like I.T. and Biotechnology have become the thrust area in the industrial scene in Tamil Nadu. TIDEL, a software technology park, has been established in Tharamani, Chennai. Most of the industries are situated in and around Chennai region and thus the Chennai city is called as “Detroit of India”.
Tourist attraction at Tamilnadu
Tamil Nadu has so many things to offer to the tourists and pilgrims from within the state as well as those coming from the other southern states, rest of India and outside India. Some of the famous tourist centres are Chennai (beaches like Marina), Madurai (Meenakshi temple & historic city), Mamallapuram (ancient rock cut temple), Poompuhar, Kacheepuram (centre of rich tradition and learning from Shankaracharyas), Rameswaram (temple), Kanyakumari (extreme south end and water of three seas the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean merge into one another, rock memorial of Vivekananda),Ooty (Udhagamandalam, the queen of hill stations), Kodaikanal (hill station), Suruli (water-falls), Yercaud (hill stations), Kalakad (wildlife sanctuaries), Vedanthangal and Point Calimere (bird sanctuaries), Vandalur (zoological park), Wellington, Temples at Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiruvanamalai, Srirangam, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagoor, Chithannavasal, etc.